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Nani atashinda uchaguzi mkuu 2015 na kuwa rais ajaye wa Tanzania

Tuesday, August 5, 2014

How to Prevent Ebola

How to Prevent Ebola

from wikiHow - The How to Manual That You Can Edit
Ebola hemorrhagic fever (Ebola HF) is a severe and sometimes-fatal disease in humans and primates, the precise origin of which remains unknown. Most researchers believe the disease is zoonotic, meaning "animal-borne." Named after the Ebola river in the Democratic Republic of Congo where the disease was first recognized, the disease has been confirmed in Gabon, Sudan, Guinea, Liberia, Sierra Leone, the Ivory Coast, and Uganda, since its discovery in 1976. You can learn to avoid the infection, protect yourself from its effects, and what steps to take in the event you become infected.


Avoiding the Infection
  1. Understand how the disease is spread. Ebola HF can be spread in a number of ways, though primarily via direct contact with patients, specifically the blood and secretions of an infected patient. Contact with objects such as clothing, bedding, and needles have also been linked to the spread of the disease.[1]
    • Because the symptoms of Ebola HF are non-specific and take a while to become severe, the spread of the disease to friends, family, and throughout hospitals is extremely common. In a healthcare setting, the reuse of unsterilized needles and the lack of proper hospital clothing has contributed to the spread of the disease near the source.
  2. Avoid areas in which infections have been reported and suspected. For now, the disease has only been confirmed in central and west Africa, and spread primarily around healthcare facilities where patients are being treated. For the most up-to-date travel warnings and information about potential outbreaks, visit the Centers for Disease control website here.
    • In general, you should avoid areas in which the disease has been reported and suspected. If you're already there, try and avoid healthcare facilities, unless you yourself suspect you may be infected. Avoid direct contact with the infected, or anyone you suspect to be infected, displaying the symptoms of the illness.[2]
  3. Avoid direct contact with infected people. Because the disease is spread primarily via direct contact with infected patients, the best way to avoid infection is to steer clear of people who are already sick. Blood and other bodily secretions from infected patients are linked closely with the spread of the disease.
    • The remains of infected bodies are just as contagious, making it important to handle the deceased with extreme care. Avoid direct contact with bodies and with the bedding and clothing of the deceased.
  4. Avoid eating wild-caught bush meat. Researchers have their suspicions that the disease came to humans via animals, probably through the consumption of the meat of primates. If you're in an area where the disease has been reported, avoid purchasing, eating, or handling wild game to stay on the safe side.[3]
Protecting Yourself From Infection
  1. Learn to recognize the symptoms of Ebola HF. The more you know about recognizing the symptoms of infection, the better protected you'll be. While the symptoms of infection are somewhat general, you can use your judgment to determine whether or not your proximity to the infection and the symptoms you note might signify the presence of the disease. Symptoms have appeared anywhere from 48 hours following exposure to three weeks after exposure, though most symptoms should appear in about a week.[4]
    • Common symptoms of the disease include:
      • Fever
      • Headache
      • Joint and muscle aches
      • Weakness
      • Diarrhea
      • Vomiting
      • Stomach pain
      • Lack of appetite
    • Less common symptoms include:
      • Rash
      • Redness in the eyes
      • Hiccups
      • Cough
      • Sore throat
      • Chest pain
      • Difficulty breathing or swallowing
      • Bleeding inside and outside of the body
  2. Wear protective medical clothing if you're around infected patients. While it's best to avoid areas of infection entirely, if you're working in a healthcare or volunteer capacity around infected patients, the use of extreme caution is necessary. The CDC recommends that hospital workers use disposable masks, gloves, goggles, and gowns, which need to be worn at all times if you're around infected patients.
    • It's also important to never reuse needles that were used to treat infected patients, and to discard bedding and clothing that came in direct contact with infected patients. Extreme caution is necessary.
  3. Disinfect all medical hardware. Anything that comes into contact with infected patients, or with the bodily fluids of infected patients needs to be sterilized immediately following use. Disinfectant needs to be used liberally in patients' rooms, around sleeping areas specifically, to avoid the spread of the infection.
    • To sterilize medical instruments following proper procedures, rinse them thoroughly immediately following use while wearing protective mask, gloves, and gown. Then, allow instruments to dry thoroughly before packing into a disinfectant pouch. Label and initial the instruments.
    • Place sterilization pouches upside down in the sterilization tray, allowing enough space between them for steam to circulate, at least an inch. Operate the sterilizer according to proper procedures and then catalog the instruments and label them sterilized.
  4. Practice barrier nursing and quarantine infected patients. If you're working with the infected, the highest level of security needs to be practiced. Plastic zipper barriers are being employed in some hospitals to minimize the contact that health care professionals have with infected patients, and in most hospitals patients are being quarantined, separated from the general population to minimize the risk of disease spreading. Direct contact with patients needs to be minimized as much as possible.
  5. Wash your hands regularly. Washing your hands regularly and thoroughly with anti-bacterial soap is absolutely essential, especially if you're in an area of infection. You should wash your hands, up to the elbow, before removing your hospital gown and other protective wear, and again after removal is complete.
Taking Action if You Are Infected
  1. Get a diagnosis. Diagnosis via symptom is somewhat difficult, because the symptoms are general. If you're experiencing any of the symptoms described above, however, and you're in an area with reported infections, it's essential that you go to the hospital immediately and have a diagnostic test performed.[5] Depending on the facility and the amount of time since your symptoms appeared, any of the following diagnostic tests may be performed:
    • Antigen-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) testing
    • IgM ELISA
    • Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)
    • Virus isolation
  2. Contact the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) immediately. If you're in an area of infection and suspect that you may be infected, contact the CDC immediately to report your illness. Keeping the disease contained is essential, meaning that new infections need to be reported as quickly as possible to spread the resources and put into place efficient quarantines.
  3. Maintain your electrolytes and stay hydrated. There is no vaccine for Ebola HF, so most of the treatment available involves addressing the specific symptoms and making the patient comfortable. One of the most uncomfortable symptoms of the disease is severe diarrhea and nausea, making it important that you stay hydrated and keep your electrolytes up. Sports drinks can be used for mild dehydration, but IV-drip should be used in serious cases.
  4. Monitor your blood pressure and control it if necessary. Rising blood pressure can destabilize a patient, while dropping blood pressure may be a serious sign of infection, making it important to keep your blood pressure under control, monitored closely. Make sure the doctors are keeping a close watch on your blood pressure.[6]
  5. Breathe an oxygen-rich environment. Difficulty breathing and chest pains are common in the infected, so oxygen is typically administered to make breathing as easy as possible. If you're struggling to get your breath, talk to a nurse immediately and have your levels checked.
  6. Quickly address any symptoms of infection. It's important to communicate openly with the hospital staff and let them know of any discomfort or complications so that they may address your symptoms programmatically. Infections need to be treated locally with antibiotics and addressed swiftly, so be honest about when and where you're feeling pain.
  7. Rest. There's unfortunately not much you can do but try to ride out the disease, if you're infected. Keep your strength up, stay hydrated, and try to get as much rest as possible. The disease is fatal in roughly 50% of the cases, but patients in good health with strong immune systems can pull through with swift care and safe recovery practices. For you, that means staying put and getting some rest.
  8. Stay abreast of treatment options. Currently, there has been no vaccine successfully tested on humans, though scientists are racing around the clock to pioneer a cure for this disease. Check in with the CDC periodically for more information regarding potential cures.


  • Read the CDC handbook on Ebola precautions. This can be found online in PDF format.
  • Avoid Ebola patients. If you are a healthcare worker and this is not possible, follow all precautions suggested by the CDC and WHO.
  • Wash your hands and always wear gloves and masks around people with undiagnosed sickness.
  • Take advantage of the Centers for Disease Control and the World Health Organization's websites. They often publish records of recent outbreaks. Avoid travel to places where Ebola is known to be.
  • Don't panic. Unless you live in an area where outbreaks are common, the odds of you contracting Ebola are almost none.
  • Avoid disturbing African cave and jungle habitat as these disturbances are thought to be the main source of Ebola and Marburg virus outbreaks.
  • If you are concerned, do research about Ebola and its history.


  • If you suspect that you have an undiagnosed illness, please contact a health professional.

Related wikiHows

Sources and Citations


Article provided by wikiHow, a wiki how-to manual. Please edit this article and find author credits at the original wikiHow article on How to Prevent Ebola. All content on wikiHow can be shared under a Creative Commons license.

Friday, March 7, 2014


Padri wa Makanisa ya Orthodox katika Kijiji cha Nyamihuu, Constantino Mbilinyi
Padri wa Makanisa ya Orthodox katika Kijiji cha Nyamihuu, Kata ya Nzihi, jimboni Kalenga Constantino Mbilinyi (36) amepigwa na kujeruhiwa na watu wanaodaiwa kuwa ni wafuasi wa CCM.

Baada ya kukutwa na mkasa huo, Padri Mbilinyi alishikiliwa kwa muda katika Ofisi ya Ofisa Mtendaji wa kijiji hicho, Kumbusho Chengula, na baadaye alichukuliwa na askari ambao walimpeleka Kituo cha Polisi Kati, mjini Iringa kwa mahojiano.

Kasisi huyo akizungumza na waandishi wa habari jana alisema alipatwa na mkasa huo alipoambatana na viongozi wa Chadema waliopiga kambi kwenye Kata ya Nzihi, ambao walikuwa wakielekea kwenye mikutano ya kampeni za kumnadi mgombea ubunge kupitia chama hicho, Grace Tendega.
Alisema viongozi hao walimwomba awasindikize kwenda Kijiji cha Igangimali kwa ajili ya kumwona mtu aitwaye, Samti Ngonjela ili wamkabidhi mabango Tendega.

“Waliniomba na mimi nikakubali kwa kuwa nilikuwa na ratiba ya kwenda katika kijiji kile kumwona Bento Ngaila ambaye tulitaka kuzungumza kuhusiana na mchakato wa shamba langu lililoko katika kijiji kile,” alisema Mbilinyi na kuongeza:

“Tulipofika nilimtafuta Ngonjela kwa ajili ya kuwaonyesha viongozi wa Chadema, lakini wakati huo vijana wengine wa Chadema walianza kubandika mabango ya mgombea katika klabu ya pombe ya Lazaro Nzigi, na ghafla lilitokea kundi la wanachama wa CCM na kuanza kuwafukuza.”
Alisema vijana hao walimgeukia wakimshutumu kwamba aliwapeleka watu wa Chadema katika eneo lile ambalo wao walikuwa na mkutano wa ndani.

Mbilinyi alisema licha ya kujitetea, wafuasi hao wa CCM walimkamata na kumwangusha na kumfunga mikono nyuma kwa kamba ya katani. Wakati huo wafuasi wa Chadema walikuwa wameshaondoka.

“Walianza kunipiga na kunisukuma hali iliyonifanya nianguke chini na kuumia mkononi na mgongoni. Nikiwa nimeanguka chini na mikono yangu imefungwa kamba kwa nyuma mmoja wa vijana hao alichukua pilipili na kuingiza kwenye mfuko wa shati langu kisha wakanichukua na kunipeleka ofisi ya ofisa mtendaji iliyoko Nyamihuu,” alisema Mbilinyi.

Mbilinyi alisema makada hao wa CCM walimweleza ofisa huyo kwamba alikwenda na wenzake kuwafanyia fujo na kwamba aliwatukana na kuwatishia maisha. Alisema watu waliomfanyia unyama huo anawafahamu.

Ofisa Mtendaji
Kaimu Ofisa Mtendaji, Chengula alithibitisha kutokea kwa tukio hilo na kuongeza kuwa alilazimika kumweka ndani kwa kuhofia hali ya usalama.

“Ni kweli....nilipigiwa simu na kada wa CCM ninayemfahamu akaniambia Padri huyo amepeleka wanachama wa Chadema kwenye eneo ambalo wao walikwenda kuwatembelea wanachama wao na kwamba waliwatukana,” alisema Chengula na kuongeza: “Ilipofika saa 12 jioni niliona kundi la watu wakija ofisini huku wakiwa wamemtanguliza Mbilinyi ambaye alikuwa amefungwa kamba mikononi.”
Alisema baada ya kupokea maelezo ya makada wa CCM aliamuru Padri Mbilinyi afanyiwe upekuzi kisha alimweka ndani lakini baadaye saa 5 usiku polisi wakiongozana na viongozi wa Chadema na CCM walifika kisha kuondoka naye.

Chadema, CCM
Mkurugenzi wa Oganaizesheni na Mafunzo ya Ufundi, Benson Kigaila alisema alikwenda polisi kumwekea dhamana.

Aliwapongeza polisi kwa kufika haraka Kata ya Nyamihuu ambako ndiko alikokamatwa padri huyo na kupigwa.

Mwenyekiti wa CCM, Wilaya ya Iringa, Delfina Mtavilalo alisema: “Huyo padri ninamfahamu lakini taarifa kwamba alipigwa na wafuasi wa CCM hazina ukweli wowote.”

Kamanda wa Polisi wa Mkoa wa Iringa, Ramadhan Mungi hakupatikana jana kuzungumzia tukio hilo na simu yake ilikuwa ikiita bila kupokelewa.

Chanzo: Gazeti la Mwananchi

Tuesday, March 4, 2014



Rais Yoweri Museveni wa Uganda ameriamuru jeshi la nchi hiyo (UPDF) pamoja na Mamlaka ya Wanyamapori ya Uganda (UWA) kuwapiga risasi jangili yeyote atakayeonekana katika mbuga za wanyama za nchi hiyo.

Rais Museveni anayeonekana kukerwa sana na tatizo la ujangili alitoa agizo hilo huko Kidepo wakati wa maadhimisho ya miaka hamsini toka kuzinduliwa kwa mbuga hiyo ya wanyama. Ni hivi karibuni tu mbuga hiyo ilichaguliwa na CNN kama mbuga ya tatu Afrika kwa ubora kwa mwaka 2013.

“Inaonekana jeshi limelala. Inawezekana vipi mtu akashindwa kuheshimu nyumba ya mtu mwingine? Kama hao Watoposas na Waturkana wakija tena kuwasumbua wanyama wetu wapige risasi. Kama hamuwezi kuwapiga mimi mwenyewe nitakuja na kufanya hivyo” alikaririwa Museveni akisema.

“Yeyote atakayeingia hapa Uganda na bunduki ni lazima apigwe risasi”, Museveni aliongeza.

Agizo hilo la rais Museveni limekuja wakati ambao kumekuwepo na malalamiko kutoka waziri wa nchi wa Karamoja kuwa ujangili bado ni tatizo kubwa linalozikumba mbuga za wanyama nchini humo ikiwemo Kidepo.

“Mheshimiwa rais hatujui tutafanyaje, Watoposa kutoka Sudan ya Kusini na Waturkana kutoka Kenya huingia nchini mwetu wakiwa na silaha, kasha huwasumbua raia wetu na kuendesha vitendo vya ujangili katika mbuza zetu za wanyama” alisema waziri huyo bwana Babra Nekasa Oudo.

Rais Museveni ana wasiwasi kuwa sekta ya utalii nchini humo, ambayo wmwaka jana iliingiza kiasi cha dola billion 1.3 kutokana na watalii million 1.5 waliofika Uganda, haiheshimiwi na majangili.

Museveni pia aliwataka wananchi wa Karamoja kujenga mahoteli zaidi na kukuza mimea ya chakula ili waweze kufaidika na sekta ya utalii inayokua kwa kasi nchini humo.

“Nchi ya Spain hupokea watalii wapatao million 50 kwa mwaka na hupata kiasi cha dola billion 23 kutoka kwenye sekta ya utalii lakini hawana vivutio vizuri kama tulivyonavyo hapa Uganda. Waganda wanapaswa wafungue macho na kuachana na ujangili”, alisema rais Museveni.


Mamlaka ya Hali ya Hewa Tanzania

Mamlaka ya Hali ya Hewa Tanzania inatoa tahadhari kuwa kunatarajia vipindi vya mvua kubwa inayozidi milimita 50 katika eneo la Ukanda wa Pwani (Mikoa ya Mtwara, Lindi, Pwani, Dar es Salaam, Tanga pamoja na visiwa vya Unguja na Pemba) kuanzia tarehe 5 Machi hadi 7 Machi 2014.

Hali hii inatokana na kuimalika kwa mgandamizo mdogo wa hewa mashariki mwa bahari ya Hindi sambamba na kusogea kwa haraka kwa mfumo wa mvua za msimu (ITCZ) hivyo kuongeza kiwango cha unyevunyevu kutoka baharini kuelekea maeneo tajwa hapo juu.

Wakazi na watumiaji wa Bahari pamoja na mamlaka zinazohusika na maafa, wanashauriwa kuchukua tahadhari stahiki.


Rachel Canning

Binti mmoja kuyoka New Jersey, Marekani amewafungulia kesi wazazi wake akidai kuwa wamemfukuza kutoka nyumbani kwao, wamekuwa hawamlipii karo ya shule wala kumpatia fedha za kujikimu. Binti huyo sasa anadai wazazi wake wampatia fedha ya kujikimu, walipe karo yake katika shule anayosoma sasa na baadaye katika chuo.

Hata hivyo wazazi wa binti huyo wanasema kuwa hawajawahi kumfukuza binti yao anayejulikana kwa jina la Rachel Canning, lakini binti huyo aliondoka nyumbani kwao kwa hiari baada ya kushindwa kutii taratibu za nyumbani hapo.

“Tunampenda sana binti yetu na tumekuwa tukitamani sana kumwona. Jambo hili linatuhuzunisha sana mimi na mke wangu” anasema Sean Canning ambaye ndiye baba wa binti huyo. Sean anaongeza kusema kuwa binti yao anataka wamlipia bili zake lakini hataki kukaa nyumbani kwa madai kuwa hawezi tena kuishi chini ya taratibu zao. Sean anadai kuwa taratibu ambazo binti yao hazitaki ni pamoja na kuutafakari upya uhusiano wake na rafiki yake wa kiume ambaye inaonekana anaweza kumwongoza katika mambo mabaya, kuwa mwenye adabu na heshima na kufuata mda wa kurejea nyumbani kila siku.

Sean anasema kuwa wamelizuia gari la Rachel kwa sababu wao ndio waliolilipia lakni pia anakiri kuwa ni kweli waliacha kulipa karo ya shule ya Morris Catholic High School anaposoma binti huyo.

Kwa miezi kadhaa sasa Rachel Canning amekuwa akiishi na familia ya rafiki yake mpenzi ambaye pia wanasoma darasa moja shuleni, Jaime Inglesino. Baba yake na rafiki yake huyo, wakili John Inglesino, anashughulikia kesi hiyo huku yeye mwenyewe akiwadai Canning na mkewe kumrudishia gharama zote za kuendesha kesi hiyo ambazo kwa sasa zimefikia kiasi cha dola 12,597.


Baraza la Mitihani Tanzania (NECTA)
Baraza la Mitihani Tanzania  limetangaza kuanza kwa usajili kwa watahiniwa wa kujitegemea wanaotaka kufanya Mtihani wa Kidato cha Nne (CSEE) na Maarifa (QT) mwezi Novemba 2014.

Monday, March 3, 2014


Mhamiaji haramu akitolewa ndani ya sanduku la nguo
Je, ni kwa kiasi gani uko tayari kuhatarisha maisha yako ili uweze kufikia malengo yako? Kijana mmoja kutoka Mali huko Afrika ya Magharibi akiwa na ndoto za kufika Ulaya, mahali alipokuwa na matumaini kuwa ataweza kuishi maisha yaliyo bora zaidi, baada ya kujaribu kila mbinu za kufika Ulaya na kutokufanikiwa aliamua kuvushwa akiwa amefichwa ndani ya sanduku la nguo.

Kijana huyo mwenye umri wa miaka 19 alikubaliana na mtu mmoja kutoka Morocco ambaye alimwingiza ndani ya sanduku lake la nguo ili amvushe kutoka Morocco hadi Melilla huko Spain.

Lakini kwa bahati mbaya maafisa wa uhamiaji walitilia shaka sanduku hilo na kumwomba mwenyewe alifungue ili waweze kulikagua.

Kuona hivyo, yule kijana mwenye sanduku aliona mambo yameshaharibika. Ghafla alitimua mbio akiliacha nyuma sanduku lake. Maafisa hao walilifungua sanduku hilo na kumkuta mhamiaji huyo akiwa kajikunyata ndani.

Makubwa hayo ya wahamiaji haramu na ndoto za kufika Ulaya.